Muon Catalyzed Fusion

Introduction. Muon catalyzed fusion is the name given to a series od reactions resulting in the fusion of two hydrogen isotopes nuclei which are kept closed by a negative muon. This process firstly observed by Alvarez et al (1957). The possibility of realizing fusion-chambers based on muon catalysis is especially attractive if one considers the advantage of work with a fusion chamber that is operated relatively at low temperatures. There is a wealth of experience accumulated by nuclear community of working at these temperatures. Of course, it is almost futile to take of pure fusion reactors based on muon catalysis alone because of the unfavorable energetics associated with the production of negative mesons. However, the preliminary estimates of energy balance for muon-catalyzed fusion chambers combined with the fissionable nuclide-blanket show a net positive gain. There is another advantage in selecting muon catalyzed fusion as driver for fissionable balnkets. The muon catalyzed fusion chambers are very useful in themselves as one can investigate experimentally the validity of fusion cross-section for advanced fusion fuels like (D, D), (D, He3) (D, Li6) without bothering about the problems connected with excessive plasma temperature one requires while trying to realize thermonuclear fusion environment. Also it would be extremely useful to simulate radiation environment with muon catalyzed advanced fusion fuel for physics and engineering investigations of the likely energy extraction systems of later-day thermonuclear reactor based on advanced fusion fuels. There is also an interesting possibility of utilizing muon-catalyzed fusion to ignite usual thermonuclear reactions in an inertially confined deuterium-tritium pellet. Physics of Muonic Catalysis. The phenomenon of catalysis of nuclear reaction on cold hydrogen by µ mesons is brought about by a whole lot of atomic and nuclear process which are set into motion before hydrogen isotopes are made to fuse while keeping close company within a muonic hydrogen molecular ion by a single µ-meson. The fusion reactions of our interest among hydrogen isotopes are given earlier. Under Ordinary conditions these reactions can take place only when the reacting nuclei are imparted enough kinetic energy to tunnel significantly through the Coulomb barrier. For Example, the nuclei are heated to high temperatures in thermonuclear fusion. It is to be noted that the kinetic energy required to be supplied to the nuclei is usually much smaller than the height of coulomb-barrier. Also the probability of barrier penetration is more critically dependent on barrier width. These bring the nuclei close enough, say by chemical forces. In an ordinary hydrogen molecule, a nuclear reaction is impossible because of large distance between the two nuclei. In fact, it is easy to see this from the following relation for barrier penetration. B=exp?[(-Km)/v(m_(e^ ) )] Where K is a numerical factor around 3, m is the reduced mass of the hydrogen nuclei. me is the mass of electron, if electron could be replaced by some “electron like” heavier particle to produce chemical binding in the hydrogen molecule, B would increase. Only suitable “electron-like” particle turns out to be negative meson as it does not react with nucleus. The subnuclear µ meson is 207 times as heavy as electron with the same electric charge. This leads to vary small value of Bohr radius (aµ) for muon. Muon has got life time 2.2 x 106 sec and it decays into an electron, neutrino and antineutrino. This short lifetime of muon necessitates its utilization through fast processes. When muons are injected into some dense matter, they slow down rather quickly and at low energies are captured to form muonic atoms. For example, slowing down in a 50% D2+50% T2 medium will form muonic atoms Dµ and Tµ. These muonic atoms move around in the host medium and undergo one of the two main processes: Muon transfer from lighter to heavier nucleus, i.e. colliding with t in T2 molecule will yield T as follows: Dµ + T –> Tµ +D … (15.7.2) The muonic molecular ion formation through interaction heavier muonic atom with lighter or equally heavy nuclei present like; Tµ + D –> DTµ … (15.7.2) It is to be added here that the probability of formation of DT molecular ion through the collision of D and T is rather small as compared to the probability of muon transfer as shown in Eqn. (15.7.2). it can be explained from the fact that while the presence of a third particle (electron or deuteron) is necessary to transfer the binding energy released in the formation of DTµ molecular ion, the binding energy excess released in the formation of heavier muonic atom Tµ is shared by the product particles, tµ and D. After the formation of muonic molecular ion like DTµ, the heavy hydrogen nuclei present within it, namely D and T in the present case, undergo fusion almost instantaneously. It happens because of the extreme closeness of these nuclei within the muonic molecular ion-the width of the coulomb barrier is reduced drastically by the binding particle muon. The fusion of D and T within DTµ can be represented as: DTµ –> He4 + n + µ +17.6 MeV. … (15.7.4) The energy released in the above reaction is distributed essentially between He4 and n. the muon freed in reaction (15.7.4) can repeatedly catalyze such nuclear reaction till either it decays or is captured. It is possible to give 100 (D, T) fusion events per muon. It is obvious from the foregoing discussion that the number of (D, T) fusion catalyzed by a single muon will be governed by the ‘reaction rates’, associated with various processes leading to formation of a “meso-molecule”. In the meso-molecule a virtual photon can be absorbed by the muon thus giving (refer Fig. 15.7.1). D He3 P Fig. 15.7.1. Concept of µ catalyzes fusion by photon absorption. pDµ –> 5.4 MeV. The energy of the muon is Eµ = 5.4 MeV. Energy production from Muon catalyzed fusion. The large value of the DTµ mesomolecule formation rate has revived the idea of using muon catalyzed fusion (m.c.f) for energy generation. In this regard, petrov has proposed an indigeneous scheme, so called mesocatalytic Reactor (MR) or Hybreader, here m.c.f is used together with the electronuclear breeding in order to produce a positive energy outline. The logical scheme of the Mesocatalytic reactor is shown in Fig. (15.7.2). Light nuclei, such as D or T, are accelerated up to an energy of about 1 GeV/nucleon and hit a target where fast nucleons and p mesons (a meson is a particle equal in charge, but having greater mass than an electron or positron, and less than a neutron or proton) are produced. As p are most likely produced in n-n collisions, it is convenient to have both beam and target rich of neutrons. The fast neutrons impinge onto a U-238 blanket, where they cause the fission of uranium and produce fissile isotope (Pu). In this way one gets out heat, which can be converted into electric energy in the electric generator as well as nuclear fuel, which can be used in an atomic energy plant. Essentially, this is the scheme of electronuclear energy production. The pions, which have been trapped in a magnetic device around the target, will decay into muons and neutrinos in the converter. In principle, this system provides a source of muon which is much more economical than the standard way of producing a muon beam. Petrov and Shabelski (1981) estimate that the beam energy is necessary for the production of one negative point in a cylindrical beryllium target is about 4.5 GeV. In a suitable deuterium and tritium mixture inside the so-called synthesizer the muon will catalyze nuclear fusions. Petrov observes that, by using for electronuclear breeding the 14 MeV neutron originated from the DT fusion, it is possible to recover much more energy than the fusion energy itself. Petrov’s schemes brings following two idea into the subject of m.c.f. : It presents an ‘economic way’ of getting a source of muons in that all the energy of the primary beam is eventually used for energy production – through channels A and B of Fig. (15.7.2), and the particle losses of the muon beam are appreciably reduced. It shows that, by a suitable use of the fusion products, it is possible to recover much more energy than the fusion itself. The theoretical predictions (later confirmed by experimental results) of a particularly high value of the (DTµ) formation rate have revived the idea of using the m.c.f for energy production. If this respect several points have to be further investigated. First, one has to clarify the formation mechanism of the (DTµ) meso-molecule and provide definite estimates on the number of possible fusions.

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Before proceeding to read this article, it is important that we state something up front. It is essential for the reader to understand and appreciate that there is no such thing as a secure operating system or web browser. While the use of security suites and other complementing products can significantly reduce your risks, they are not magic wands that you can wave to eliminate 100% of your risk. Any product claiming they can do this should be viewed with great skepticism. With that being said, let’s talk computer security and security suites. There are numerous ways in which the security of your computer can be breached. The most common threats come from worms, viruses, Trojans, phishing, hackers and crackers. Potential security breaches can come in the form of downloading unfamiliar email attachments, being monitored by spyware, maliciously attacked by malware, or probed through port scanning. Dshield.org (www.dshield.org), a non-profit company, functions as a “dominating attach correlation engine with worldwide coverage”. In short, they work with people and companies to track, among other things, port scanning violations. Port scanning involves a person (referred to as a hacker or cracker) who attempts to break into you computer through the open ports in your system. Once an open port is located, the individual attempts to collect your personal data or install a malware program into you computer. On average, Dshield.org logs over 1.1 billion reported attempts of port scanning each month. What is even scarier is that this is just based on their program participants. You can imagine how many more incidents are occurring each month to the general population of computer users. Dshield.org also reports on survival time. Survival time refers to how long it will take before an unpatched PC is attacked or infected. Below is a snapshot of their current operating system breakdown: Current OS Breakdown Category % Adjusted Survival Time Windows 27.0000 128 min Unix 0.5000 3648 min Application 3.0000 1203 min P2P 1.5000 1591 min Backdoor 0.5000 5432 min Source: Dshield.org – Survival Time History (11/8/05) In short, if you have a Windows-based operating system and an unpatched PC, you will be attacked or infected in a little over 2 hours. When looked at in these terms, securing your computer becomes a mission. Here are a few easy steps you can take to immediately protect your computer. 1. Don’t run unfamiliar programs on your computer. It sounds like common sense, but many of the most prominent attacks have involved spyware and email attachment worms such as Bagle and Netsky. If you don’t recognize the sender, don’t download its attachments. 2. Don’t allow unrestricted physical access to your computer. If you have sensitive or proprietary information on your computer, allowing other employees or family members to use your computer can lead to potential breaches in your computer’s security. 3. Don’t use weak passwords. Use passwords which are difficult for someone to figure out. People frequently use the names of children, pets, anniversary dates, or birthdays. Because there seems to be a password needed for everything, it is not uncommon to see many people using the same password for everything. Big mistake! The use of only one password provides a hacker with easy access to a smorgasbord of personal information. If you have to write your passwords down, it is best not to leave them on a post-it, attached to the screen of your computer. You may chuckle at the absurdity, but it happens more than you think. 4. Don’t forget to regularly patch your operating system and other applications. Many industry experts believe that most network security attacks would be stopped if computer users would just keep their computers updated with patches and security fixes. Too often, we forget to do this on a regular basis. Remember that every day, new viruses, worms and Trojans are being created and distributed. They are looking for the weaknesses in your computer system. Having outdated software is basically the same as holding the door open and inviting them in for a visit. 5. Don’t forget to make regular backups of important data Always keep a copy of important files on removable media such as floppy/ZIP disks or recordable CD-ROM disks. Store the backups in a location separate from the computer. In most cases, Windows desktop and screen-saver passwords provides adequate protection for normal security concerns. However, if you feel more comfortable taking additional security measures consider obtaining a comprehensive security suite. Selecting a Antivirus Software The next question is how do you pick the best product for your needs? You start by asking yourself a series of questions. Do you need password protection for individual files, your desktop, a network, or to block someone’s access to the Internet? Is your computer used only by you or do multiple users have access to the computer? How many users in total do you expect on your computer? What are your system requirements? How much do you want to spend? Once you are able to answer these questions, you can begin to research which security suite will best meet your needs. Product reviews and user statements provide a great starting point. PCMagaine (www.pcmag.com), Zdnet.com (www.zdnet.com), and Consumer Reports (www.consumerreports.org) are just a few informative sites that offer research on various computer software products. There are numerous security suites available on the market. Take the time to choose the one that meets your specific needs. As a starting point, we’ve listed a couple of the more popular programs: 1. Kaspersky Personal Security Suite Description: A comprehensive protection program package designed to guard against worms, viruses, spyware, adware and other malicious programs. The program offers five pre-defined security levels and is convenient for mobile users. System requirements: Window 98/2000/XP; Internet Explore 5.0 or higher, Memory: minimum of 64 MB RAM, 100 MB free on hard drive. 2. Shield Deluxe 2005 Description: This program provides protection from viruses, adware, spyware, and privacy threats while using very low system resources. Additionally, the maker, PC Security Shield offers ongoing free technical support. System requirements: Windows 98 or higher, WinNT, WinXP, WinME; Internet Explorer 5.1 or higher, Memory: 32MB ram or higher, 65 MB free disk space.
Introduction:
An Oxygen sensor (or LAMBDA sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed. It was developed by Robert Bosch in late 1960’s. The original sensing element is made with a thimble-shaped ZIRCONIA ceramic coated on both exhaust and refrence sides with a thin layer of PLATINUM and comes in both heated and non heated form.To fully understand what is an oxygen sensor. Understand how Oxygen sensor is used in exhaust of automobiles. Study and understand its working. Study its types.
Principle:
Oxygen sensor is located on the exhaust line; one before catalytic converter (upstream/precat sensor) and one after catalytic converter (downstream/postcat sensor).
• UPSTREAM sensor is used for rgulating the fuel supply.
• While DOWNSTREAM sensor monitors the efficiency of catalytic converter

Oxygen sensor at the exhaust.
High pressure and temperature exhaust gases leaving the engine cylinder during the exhaust stroke travel through the exhaust manifold and come in contact with oxygen sensor placed before catalytic converter.
Working:
• Exhaust gas consisting of oxygen molecules contacts the sensing element after flowing through the slots or holes on the steel shell.
• Outside air is made to flow through the gaps between the connecting cables. The air is then heated to enable the ions to produce voltage
• The difference in concentration of the oxygen molecules in exhaust gas and the ambient air drives the oxygen ions from higher concentration to lower concentration.
• Due to movement of oxygen ions from one platinum layer to the other , a potential difference is generated.
• A rich mixture surges the voltage up to 0.9V.
• Lean mixture drops the voltage down to 0.1V.
• These voltage signals are then fed to ECU.
• The ECU then compares it with the pre stored standard data to decide whether the mixture is rich or lean , and these calculations manipulate the air/fuel mixture drop the subsequent stroke.
Types of the oxygen sensor used:
• There are three basic types of oxygen sensors used;
  • Zirconia
  • Titania
  • Air fuel.
  • Zirconia sensor:
• The zirconia or zirconium dioxide sensor is based on solid state electrochemical fuel cell called the Nernst Cell. Its two electrodes provide an output voltage corresponding to quantity of oxygen in exhaust relative to that in the atmosphere.
Titania sensor:
• Titania (titanium dioxide) oxygen sensor does not produce voltage.
• It changes resistance due to presence of oxygen in exhaust.
• Titania oxygen sensors use four-terminal variable resistance unit with heating element.